Liver steatosis was graded semiquantitatively based on the percentage of hepatocytes according to the following criteria: During HF feeding, icv IL-4 administration increased hypothalamic proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and caused excess weight gain.
Blood pressure measurements were analyzed by global non-linear regression, followed by an F-test. Louis, MO was used to measure hepatic triglyceride secretion as described previously. Fresh livers were homogenized in 4 volumes of 0.
The expected PCR product was base pair bp. Primer sequences were as described in . Supplementary material for this article can be found on the Hepatology website http: Advanced Search Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD is hepatic manifestation of a metabolic syndrome and includes a spectrum of hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis.
Arteriolar Myogenic Reactivity and Responsiveness to Nitric Oxide A pressure myograph system Living Systems Instrumentation, USA was used to determine arteriolar myogenic reactivity and responsiveness to nitric oxide, as previously described .
After 50 minutes, the vascular clamp was removed; animals were sacrificed 6 hours later, and the serum was collected to measure ALT levels. Since proinflammatory cytokines are also induced in the hypothalamus of animals placed on a high-fat HF diet and can inhibit neuronal signal transduction pathways required for normal energy homeostasis, hypothalamic inflammation is hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity DIO.
Levels of IL-1 are increased in coronary arteries affected by atherosclerosis and inhibition of IL-1 in animal models is associated with reduced amounts of atheroma  —  as well as neointima following angioplasty . This was associated with an IL-1 mediated loss of endothelium-dependent relaxation and an increase in vessel wall Nox 4.
Blood was obtained from orbital canthus and serum was separated. Gel Mobility Shift Assay. Tissue inflammation during high-fat HF feeding results from the recruitment and activation of macrophages, which can cause insulin resistance through local or systemic release of proinflammatory cytokines 121925 Cannula placement was verified through the measurement of a sympathetically mediated increase of plasma glucose 60 min after icv injection of 5-thio-d-glucose mg Considerable evidence has accumulated to suggest that the cytosolic ectopic accumulation of fatty acid metabolites, including diacylglycerol and ceramides, underlies the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.
A decrease in the sensitivity of skeletal muscle to insulin represents one of the earliest maladies associated with high dietary fat intake and weight gain. Mice were fed with standard chow and ad libitum plus water. These methods are given in detail in the supplementary data.
Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction Total RNA extraction from frozen liver tissue samples was performed using Trizol Reagent Kit Invitrogen, Carlsbad, USA according to the manufacturer's instructions. Western blot analysis was performed as described previously. Food intake and body weight were measured daily.Central administration of interleukin-4 exacerbates hypothalamic inflammation and weight gain during high-fat feeding Shinsuke Oh-I, * Joshua P.
Thaler, * Kayoko Ogimoto, Brent E. Wisse, Gregory J. Morton, and Michael W. SchwartzCited by: However, a high-fat diet (HFD) combined with exercise enhanced fat oxidation, according to previous studies [7,8,9]. In studies conducted in both trained and untrained subjects, training increases fat oxidation in human subjects and reduces the reliance on carbohydrate as an energy source during submaximal exercise tests [ 7, 8, 9 ].Cited by: 3.
Gao et al.  transferred FGF21 cDNA and evaluated its effect on mice fed a high fat diet-reporting reduced obesity and body weight gain and the alleviation of liver steatosis. High fat diet induced obesity on female rat associated death (10) and liver cell cancer (11).
In many cases NAFLD is histologically indistinguishable from alcoholic liver disease. High fat diets may be particularly linked with elevation in blood pressure.
It is clear that in humans, dietary alterations away from a standard Western diet to those lower in fat, but which are isocaloric and balanced for sodium content, or which are supplemented with omega-3 Cited by: · Interleukin Prevents Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance by Attenuating Macrophage and Cytokine Response in Skeletal Muscle Eun-Gyoung Hong 1, 2, Hwi Jin Ko 1, 3,Cited by: